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Terrestrial Ecotoxicology

We evaluate the effects of substances on terrestrial ecosystems

Terrestrial Ecotoxicology studies are provided through our three GLP accredited sites, each having their own specialty. With nearly 40 years working on Terrestrial Ecotoxicology, Mambo-Tox (UK) has been chosen to lead this section. Our studies meet the international criteria required for registration purposes, as we offer tests according to OECD, EPA/OCSPP and JMAFF guidelines.


We run studies on pollinating insects to assess acute or chronic effects of test items. We manage on-site semi-field studies and field studies with pollinating insects including honey bees, bumble bees and solitary bees. Our expertise lies within the combination of our extensive experience with laboratory and outdoor studies, along with the analytical measurement of residues in different matrices like pollen, honey and nectar.

  • Honey bee Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity: OECD 213 and 214
  • Honey bee Chronic Oral Toxicity: OECD 245
  • Honey bee Acute Larval Toxicity: OECD 237
  • Honey bee Chronic Larval Toxicity: OECD GD 239
  • Bumble bee Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity: OECD 246 and 247
  • Bumble bee Chronic Oral Toxicity: OECD draft
  • Solitary bee Chronic Oral Toxicity: OECD draft
  • Semi-field study and Semi-field brood test including Residue Analytics for Honey and Bumble and Solitary bees OECD GD75

In-house Colony

Having our own hives and bee colonies ensure we have access to good quality organisms, which is essential for these tests.

Analytical support

Analytical chemists integrated with the Ecotoxicology department. They can provide concurrent support for application and feeding solutions analysis, as well as nectar, pollen and honey analysis.

Soil organisms

Our team also conducts laboratory and field studies with soil organisms to assess potential acute and chronic effects of chemicals. We can also offer specific higher-tiered study designs for soil organism tests.

  • Soil Microorganisms Nitrogen/Carbon Transformation Test: OECD 216 and 217
  • Earthworm Acute Toxicity Test: OECD 207
  • Earthworm Reproduction Test: OECD 222
  • Predatory Mite and Collembolan Reproduction Test in Soil: OECD 226 and 232
  • Earthworm Field Study: ISO 11268-3
  • Bioaccumulation in terrestrial Oligochaetes: OECD 317


In addition to using the standard OECD artificial soil, we can carry out studies using natural soils (e.g. LUFA), for specific client requirements.

Non Target Arthropods

The aim of these tests is to assess potential side effects of plant protection products on mortality and reproduction of these test species. We can carry out Tier I or laboratory: worst case toxicity (inert substrate), Tier 2 extended-laboratory (natural substrate), aged residue (natural substrate), semi field and field studies on all the required non-target arthropods.  

  • Aphidius rhopalosiphi: Mead-Briggs et al.
  • Typhlodromus pyri: Blümel et al.
  • Trichogramma cacoeciae: Hassan et al.
  • Chrysoperla carnea: Vogt et al.
  • Coccinella septempunctata: Schmuck et al.
  • Orius laevigatus: Bakker et al.
  • Aleochara bilineata: Grimm et al.
  • Poecilus cupreus (adult and larvae): Heimbach et al.
  • Pardos aspp: Heimbach et al.

Dung organisms can also be tested:

  • Musca autumnalis or Scathophaga stercoraria: OECD 228
  • Aphodius constant: OECD STA GD 122

In-house Colonies

By rearing our own colonies of non-target arthropods we are able to use high quality organisms and undertake timely studies.

Mode of Administration

Treatment application is usually carried via a representative sprayer, but specific applications methods can be used. 

Specific oral studies have been developed with customers, where a substance is more likely to be ingested by the organism. 

Terrestrial / Non Target Plants

Non-target plant studies are carried out in our greenhouses to determine concentration-effect relationship  for adverse effects of test itemson seedling emergence, early growth and vegetative vigour of terrestrial non-target plants.

We have experience with a wide taxonomic range of crop and non-crop test species. We have optimized husbandry for most test species so we can ensure uniform and healthy growth.

  • Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test: OECD 208 and OCSPP 850.4100
  • Vegetative Vigour Test: OECD 227 and OCSPP 850.4150

Seeds Quality

We conduct regular quality tests on our seeds to ensure that validity criteria associated with emergence and survival rate are met.

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We look forward to your request or questions you may have regarding our services.