We evaluate the effects of substances on terrestrial ecosystems
Terrestrial Ecotoxicology studies are provided through our three GLP accredited sites, each having their own specialty. With nearly 40 years working on Terrestrial Ecotoxicology, Mambo-Tox (UK) has been chosen to lead this section. Our studies meet the international criteria required for registration purposes, as we offer tests according to OECD, EPA/OCSPP and JMAFF guidelines.
We run studies on pollinating insects to assess acute or chronic effects of test items. We manage on-site semi-field studies and field studies with pollinating insects including honey bees, bumble bees and solitary bees. Our expertise lies within the combination of our extensive experience with laboratory and outdoor studies, along with the analytical measurement of residues in different matrices like pollen, honey and nectar.
- Honey bee Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity: OECD 213 and 214
- Honey bee Chronic Oral Toxicity: OECD 245
- Honey bee Acute Larval Toxicity: OECD 237
- Honey bee Chronic Larval Toxicity: OECD GD 239
- Bumble bee Acute Oral and Contact Toxicity: OECD 246 and 247
- Bumble bee Chronic Oral Toxicity: OECD draft
- Solitary bee Chronic Oral Toxicity: OECD draft
- Semi-field study and Semi-field brood test including Residue Analytics for Honey and Bumble and Solitary bees OECD GD75
Having our own hives and bee colonies ensure we have access to good quality organisms, which is essential for these tests.
Analytical chemists integrated with the Ecotoxicology department. They can provide concurrent support for application and feeding solutions analysis, as well as nectar, pollen and honey analysis.
Our team also conducts laboratory and field studies with soil organisms to assess potential acute and chronic effects of chemicals. We can also offer specific higher-tiered study designs for soil organism tests.
- Soil Microorganisms Nitrogen/Carbon Transformation Test: OECD 216 and 217
- Earthworm Acute Toxicity Test: OECD 207
- Earthworm Reproduction Test: OECD 222
- Enchytraeid Reproduction Test: OECD 220
- Predatory Mite and Collembolan Reproduction Test in Soil: OECD 226 and 232
- Earthworm Field Study: ISO 11268-3
- Bioaccumulation in terrestrial Oligochaetes: OECD 317
In addition to using the standard OECD artificial soil, we can carry out studies using natural soils (e.g. LUFA), for specific client requirements.
Non Target Arthropods
The aim of these tests is to assess potential side effects of plant protection products on mortality and reproduction of these test species. We can carry out Tier I or laboratory: worst case toxicity (inert substrate), Tier 2 extended-laboratory (natural substrate), aged residue (natural substrate), semi field and field studies on all the required non-target arthropods.
- Aphidius rhopalosiphi: Mead-Briggs et al.
- Typhlodromus pyri: Blümel et al.
- Trichogramma cacoeciae: Hassan et al.
- Chrysoperla carnea: Vogt et al.
- Coccinella septempunctata: Schmuck et al.
- Orius laevigatus: Bakker et al.
- Aleochara bilineata: Grimm et al.
- Poecilus cupreus (adult and larvae): Heimbach et al.
- Pardos aspp: Heimbach et al.
Dung organisms can also be tested:
- Musca autumnalis or Scathophaga stercoraria: OECD 228
- Aphodius constant: OECD STA GD 122
By rearing our own colonies of non-target arthropods we are able to use high quality organisms and undertake timely studies.
Mode of Administration
Treatment application is usually carried via a representative sprayer, but specific applications methods can be used.
Specific oral studies have been developed with customers, where a substance is more likely to be ingested by the organism.
Terrestrial / Non Target Plants
Non-target plant studies are carried out in our greenhouses to determine concentration-effect relationship for adverse effects of test itemson seedling emergence, early growth and vegetative vigour of terrestrial non-target plants.
We have experience with a wide taxonomic range of crop and non-crop test species. We have optimized husbandry for most test species so we can ensure uniform and healthy growth.
- Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test: OECD 208 and OCSPP 850.4100
- Vegetative Vigour Test: OECD 227 and OCSPP 850.4150
We conduct regular quality tests on our seeds to ensure that validity criteria associated with emergence and survival rate are met.