Studies on metabolism in crops or rotational crops are performed to elucidate the degradation pathway of active ingredients and to identify possible metabolites. IES Ltd offers metabolism studies with a wide range of crops, including grapes, oilseed rape, rice, wheat, corn and many others, covering all categories of crops required to be tested. At IES Ltd, plant metabolism studies are carried out either in the greenhouse in compartments with controlled temperature and humidity or at a purpose-designed outdoor station under natural environmental conditions.
Studies on post-harvest metabolism in crops are designed to elucidate the degradation pathway of an active ingredient upon post-harvest application of a plant protection product. The metabolic pathway is determined under specific controlled storage conditions.
Studies on metabolism in livestock are performed to determine the qualitative and quantitative metabolism and/or degradation of active ingredients resulting from plant protection products used in feedstuffs, direct application to livestock, or for example premise treatment. IES offers animal metabolism studies on goats and hens in cooperation with partners specialised in performing the in-life phase.
The identification of compounds that have favourable ADME characteristics is a crucial step in the development of agrochemical, cosmetic or pharmaceutical products. IES Ltd offers in vitro metabolism assays for metabolic stability determination and metabolite profiling and identification using a variety of test systems including liver microsomes, liver S9 fraction and hepatocytes from human and animal species.
IES Ltd performs in vitro skin penetration studies to assess the transport of a test item from the outer surface of the skin both into the skin and into the systemic circulation. These studies are required for the assessment of systemic risks from dermal exposure to chemicals in humans and for the development and optimisation of cost-effective formulations. Formulation bioavailability and permeation profiles of the test compound through human skin are determined and a full mass balance of the applied dose can be obtained.